What Type of Fluid Must Always be Used With Hydraulic Pumps?

A hydraulic fluid plays a critical role in the overall operation of a hydraulic system. Since there are different types of fluids used to run and operate a hydraulic system, it is vital to select the proper fluid to increase the overall performance and reliability of the hydraulic system.The hydraulic system comprises different components, including a hydraulic pump, a motor, a reservoir, etc. The right and efficient hydraulic fluid must be selected based on various factors such as fluid properties, environmental conditions, system requirements, and regulations to enable the smooth running of the system.

Different Types of Hydraulic Fluids and Their Properties

Hydraulic fluids are categorized into several significant groups. They include monograde and multigrade hydraulic fluids, detergent and non-detergent hydraulic fluids, etc. These major categories of hydraulic fluids serve different roles and functions, particularly during different environmental conditions, levels of contamination, etc.

Different types of hydraulic fluids operate on various viscosity factors and properties. A hydraulic pump fluid’s viscosity levels and properties play a critical role in enabling the hydraulic system to perform different functions by achieving the proper lubrication, heat dissipation, heat generation, and filterability.

The hydraulic pump fluid should always have the proper levels of viscosity. A hydraulic fluid made of low density or high viscosity can cause damage to the hydraulic system components. For instance, a hydraulic pump fluid made of low viscosity can lead to metal-to-metal contact due to inadequate lubrication, thus leading to massive damage to system components.

On the other hand, a hydraulic pump fluid made of high viscosity can slow down the operation of a hydraulic system and reduce its mechanical efficiency. Also, high viscosity can increase fluid temperature, cavitation, and aeration erosion caused by energy losses and collapsed air bubbles, respectively.

Another vital factor to consider in choosing the proper hydraulic fluid includes the anti-wear fluid property, which is essential in increasing a hydraulic system’s lifespan and enabling maximum performance and efficiency. Other factors to consider in selecting the correct type of hydraulic fluid include; material compatibility, shear stability, volatility, hydrolytic stability, etc.

How Do You Choose the Proper Hydraulic Fluid?

As stated earlier, hydraulic pump fluids have different properties and requirements. Selecting the proper hydraulic fluid for your hydraulic systems depends on various factors such as the type of pump and its viscosity properties, the hydraulic fluid’s role and makeup, and the application-based selection.

Since there are different types and designs of hydraulic pumps, each pump should be used based on its performance, task, and operation. Also, since hydraulic fluids play different roles in a hydraulic system, the chemical makeup should always be considered in selecting the type of fluid for your hydraulic pump.

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